Recently I heard some weird things about the secret of the survival of the great pyramids and rise all these great, heavy stones to these so-high elevations.
Can anybody explains the secret of the survival of these pyramids? And how the pharaohs could rise all these tons to these heights in time which no electric-machines?
You can choose whatever you want to believe about them but Touregypt.com website, among others, has a great illustrated article on the pyramids' proven method of construction.
The Wikipedia article on the pyramids is also a good source of information, giving examples not only from Egypt but Nubia, Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, France, ancient Rome and Greece, and China.
The construction methods of the Pyramids on the Giza Plateau remain a mystery and a matter of of debate and hypothesis. The ramp method described in the website Ozgur highlighted is the most widely accepted theory, but it remains just that, a theory. I am not aware that anything has been proven conclusively.
Waleed, The first Egyptian "pyramids" were stepped pyramids similar to those in Central America. And similar both in outline and design, because a first small platform would be built, then another higher platform would be built over the complete first platform, etc.|
In this way, the labour of building an enormous monyment would be spread over many generations, using both animal and human power to both float, lift, roll, push and pull blocks of stone.
In has been suggested (by TV programme) that during the flooding of the fertile plain of the Nile, the workers had no agricultural work and thus available in great numbers to work on the pyramids.
Regarding the ability of humans to make great monuments without modern day machinery, please remember that the ancients knew about levers, pulley systems and other very effective ways of moving large blocks of stone, etc.
Take for example the continuing use of the Egyptian "Shadoof". This is simply a weight attached to a beam (lever arm)and allows for the lifting of a bucket of water from a lower level to a higher level. The principle is very simple, but it is a brilliant use of labour. Likewise, there were windmills, watermills and other inventions of great simplicity but excellent utility. :)))
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Here's another good resource with bibliography:
of the Giza Pyramids by Thomas Burke.
You may also want to take a look at this website, which talks about Mark Lehner's theory which was tested by the building of a smaller pyramid on a NOVA program (a science program on U.S. public TV):
[quote]One rather well known theory as to how the pyramids were built is that of Mark Lehner's. In 1989 Lehner and his friend Hawass uncovered remains of a bakery near the site of the great pyramid. Lehner has spent much of the last 13 years excavating at the site of the Great Pyramid. At the time of the discovery of the bakery, Lehner had let loose a team of diggers on a field covered with garbage. Lehner's theory, that is liked by many people, is the theory of Tafla. Tafla is a clay that is very strong when it is dried but it is easily destroyed by the swing of a pick ax. But, when Tafla is wet it is very slippery and then you can easily move the 2 ton blocks. So if you had a ramp, you could make the ramp out Tafla, you and a big crew could move the 2 ton blocks up the side of the pyramid. Then, if you put a pole on the corner of the pyramid you could "swing" the blocks around the corners. This was displayed by a NOVA experiment, that showed on a lesser scale, that building the pyramids in this matter was quite possible. This may be the most logical theory with one clause, it still doesn't cover enough of the pyramids area. There may have been four ramps spiraling upward, each starting from one of the four corners. All other theories have been unproved in some way or another.[/quote]