Transliteration Conventions - DO Middle East Garden Traditions

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The words are given in alphabetical order of their transliteration made according to the following conventions:

  • For all Arabic script authors follow the transliteration conventions provided by the journal Muqarnas which have been adopted from the Encyclopedia of Islam.
  • For Persian and Urdu, authors follow a simplified version of the Encyclopedia of the Islam’s style sheet.

Please note: We are currently in the process of updating the transliterations of all terms according to the ALA-LC transliteration tables. Please see here for more details.

ﺀ ’ (except when initial)

ب b

پ p

ت t

ث th

ج j

چ ch

ح +h

خ kh

خو khw

د d

ذ dh

ر r

ز z

ژ zh

س s

ش sh

ص +s

ض ż

ط t +

ظ z +

ع ‛

غ gh

ف f

ق q

ک k

گ g

ل l

م m

ن n

و v

ه h

ى y

For long vowels they use ā, ū, ī, and for short vowels a, i, u, for diphtongs aw and ay, and for silent h at the end of the word (ﮫ ) (a) as in khāna.

For Ottoman-Turkish, authors will follow the Turkish alphabet and transliterations.