Indus River Region and South Asian Gardens
Type
syllabus
Year
2013

Developed by Amy Gansell for a course at the Pratt Institute in the Spring of 2013, it was taught with an expanded focus on "Non-Western Gardens."

Course Description

The emphasis of this course is on monumental gardens of the Mughal period, but Hindu, Sikh, and earlier Islamic traditions are also considered.  In addition, we explore in-depth colonial British gardens and the role of South Asian plants and gardens in the British Empire. We conclude with attention to conservation issues.

Living and archaeological garden evidence is studied as well as literature, first-hand documentary reports, and visual art. 


Week 1 Introduction to region, history, cultures, and historiography of Indus River region and South Asia

-J. L. Abu-Loughod, “The Islamic city – Historic myth, Islamic essence, and contemporary relevance,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 19 (1987): 155-76.

-James L. Wescoat, Jr. and Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn,” Sources, places, representations, and Prospects: A Perspective of Mughal Gardens,” in James L. Wescoat, Jr. and Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn (eds.), Mughal Gardens: Sources, Places, Representations, and Prospects, Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 16 (Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1996), pp. 5-30.

 

Week 2 Pre-Mughal gardens, Non-Mughal gardens

-Lindley Vann, “The Palace and Gardens of Kayayapa at Sigiriya, Sri Lanka,” Archaeology (July/August 1987): 34-41.

-Patrick Bowe, “The Indian gardening tradition and the Sajjan Niwas Bagh, Udaipur,” Garden History 27 (1999): 189-205.

-Hari Ram Gupta, “Building and Gardens of Maharaja Ranjit Singh,” in Proceedings of Punjab History Conference, pp. 133-44.

-I. Husain Siddiqi, “Waterworks and Irrigation systems in India during pre-Mughal times,” Islamic Culture 58 (1984): 52-77.

 

Week 3 Timurid gardens and history

-Howard Crane, “Influence of Persian gardens in India,” Encyclopedia Iranica 10 (2000): 305-8.

-Donald N. Wilber, “Timurid gardens: From Tamerlane to Babur,” Persian Gardens and Garden Pavilions (Rutland, VT: C. E. Tuttle Col, 1962), pp. 53-78.

-Donald N. Wilber, “The Timurid court: Life in gardens and tents,” Iran 17 (1979): 127-33.

-Thomas W. Lentz, “Memory and ideology in the Timurid garden, in James L. Wescoat, Jr. and Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn (eds.), Mughal Gardens: Sources, Places, Representations, and Prospects, Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 16 (Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1996), pp. 31-57.

 

Week 4 Mughal gardens, Part 1

-James Dickie, “The Mughal Garden: Gateway to Paradise,” Muqarnas 3 (1985): 128-37.

-Jellicoe, Susan. “The Development of the Mughal Garden,” in Elisabeth B. Macdougall and Richard Ettinghausen (eds.), The Islamic Garden, Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 4 (Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1976), pp. 109-29.

-James L. Wescoat, Jr., “Landscapes of conquest and transformation: Lessons from the earliest Mughal gardens in India, 1526-1530,” Landscape Journal 10 (1991): 105-14.

James L. Wescoat, Jr., “Gardens versus citadels: The territorial context of early Mughal gardens,” in John Dixon Hunt (ed.), Garden History: Issues, Approaches, Methods (Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1992), pp. 331-58.

Week 5 Mughal gardens, Part 2: Babur (r. 1526-30), Humayun (r. 1530-40, 1555-56)

-Catherine B. Asher, “Babur and the Timurid Char bagh: Use and meaning,” Environmental Design: Mughal Architecture, Pomp, and Ceremonies 1-2 (1991): 46-55.

-Howard Crane, “The patronage of Zahir al-Din Babur and the origins of Mughal architecture,” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 1 (1987): 95-110.

-James L. Wescoat, “Gardens of invention and exile: The precarious context of Mughal garden design during the reign of Humayun (1530-1556),” Journal of Garden History 10 (1990): 106-16.

-James L. Wescoat, “Ritual Movement and Territoriality: A study of landscape transformation during the reign of Humayun,” Environmental Design (1993): 56-63.

-Ebba Koch, “Mughal palace gardens from Babur to Shahjahan (1526-1648),” Muqarnas 14 (1997): 143-65.

 

 

Week 6 Mughal gardens, Part 3: Jahangir (r. 1605-27), Shah Jahan (r. 1628-1658)

-Ebba Koch, “The Mughal waterfront garden,” in “Attilio Petruccioli (ed.), Gardens in the Time of the Great Muslim Empires: Theory and Design, Muqarnas Supplements 7 (Leiden: Brill, 1997), pp. 140-60.

-Ebba Koch, “The Zahara Bagh (Bah-i Jahanara) at Agra,” Environmental Design 2 (1986): 30-37.

-Ebba Koch, “Pietre dure and other artistic contacts between the court of the Mughals and that of the Medici,” in D. Jones (ed.), A Mirror of Princes: The Mughals and the Medici (Bombay 1987), pp. 29-56.

 

Week 7 Lahore gardens

-Abdul Rehman, “Gardens Types in Mughal Lahore according to Early-Seventeenth-Century written and visual sources,” Gardens in the Time of the Great Muslim Empires: Theory and Design, Muqarnas Supplement 7, Studies in Islamic Art and Architecture, A. Petruccioli (ed.), (Leiden: Brill, 1997), pp. 161-72.

-F. S. Aijazuddin, Lahore: Illustrated Views of the 19th Century. Lahore: Vanguard Books, Ltd., 1991.

-Wescoat, “Waterworks and culture in metropolitan Lahore,” Asian Art and Culture 8 (1995): 21-36.

-James L. Wescoat Jr., Michael Brand, and M. Naeem Mir, “The Shahdara gardens of Lahore: Site documentation and spatial analysis,” Pakistan Archaeology 25 (1993): 333-66.

-Sajjad Kausar, Michael Brand and James L. Wescoat, Jr., Shalamar Garden: Landscape, Form and Meaning (Karachi: Pakistan Department of Archaeology, 1990).

 

 

Week 8  Taj Mahal

-Wayne E. Begley and Ziyauddin A. Desai, eds., Taj Mahal, The Illumined Tomb – An Anthology of Seventeenth Century Mughal and European Documentary Sources (Cambridge, MA: Aga Khan Program for Islamic architecture, 1989). (Selections to be divided among students)

-Elizabeth Moynihan, “Reflections of paradise,” in Elizabeth B. Moynihan (ed.), The Moonlight Garden: New Discoveries at the Taj Mahal,” (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000), pp. 15-41.

-John M. Fritz and George Michell, “Archaeology of the garden,” in Elizabeth B. Moynihan (ed.), The Moonlight Garden: New Discoveries at the Taj Mahal,” (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000), pp. 79-93.

-Ebba Koch, The Complete Taj Mahal (New York: Thames and Hudson, 2006).

-Wayne E. Begley, “The garden of the Taj Mahal: A case study of Mughal architectural planning and symbolism,” in James L. Wescoat, Jr. and Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn (eds.), Mughal Gardens: Sources, Places, Representations, and Prospects, Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 16 (Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1996), pp. 213-31.

-E. Findly, “Nur Jahan’s embroidery trade and flowers of the Taj Mahal,” Asian Art and Cultrue 9 (1996): 7-25.

 

Week 9 Taj Mahal Continued

 

 

Week 10 Flora and water

-David L. Lentz, “Botanical symbolism and function at the Mahtab Bagh,” in Elizabeth B. Moynihan (ed.), The Moonlight Garden: New Discoveries at the Taj Mahal,” (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000), 43-57.

-James L. Wescoat, Jr., “Waterworks and landscape design in the Mahtab Bagh,” in Elizabeth B. Moynihan (ed.), The Moonlight Garden: New Discoveries at the Taj Mahal,” (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000), pp. 59-77.

-W. M. Thackston, “Mughal gardens in Persian poetry,” in James L. Wescoat, Jr. and Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn (eds.), Mughal Gardens: Sources, Places, Representations, and Prospects, Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 16 (Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1996), pp. 233-57.

 

 

Week 11 English Colonial

-Eugenia W. Herbert, “The Taj and the Raj: Garden imperialism in India,” Studies in the History of Gardens and Designed Landscapes 25 (2005): 250-72.

-Judith Roberts, “English Gardens in India,” Garden History 26 (1998): 115-35.

-Rebecca Preston, “‘The scenery of the Torrid Zone:’ Imagined travels and the culture of exotics in nineteenth century British gardens,” in Felix Driver and David Gilbert (eds.), Imperial Cities (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999), pp. 194-211.

-Lucile H. Brockway, “Science and colonial expansion: The role   of the British Royal Botanic Gardens,” American Ethnologist 6 (1979): 449-65.

Ray Desmond, The European Discovery of the Indian Flora (London: Oxford University, 1992).

-Patrick Bowe, “Charles Maries: Garden superintendent to two Indian maharajas,” Garden History 30 (2002): 84-94.

-Edith Cuthell, My Garden in the City of Gardens: A Memory (London, 1910).

 

Week 12  English Colonial Continued

 

Week 13 Garden conservation in India and Pakistan

-M. Yusuf Awan. “Conservation of historic buildings and gardens in Lahore: Implications for a national conservation policy for Pakistan,” in Hussain, et al. (eds.), The Mughal Garden, pp. 143-54.

-“Conservation of garden sites and urban sprawl in Lahore,” in Hussain, et al. (eds.), The Mughal Garden, 165-72.

-James L. Westcoat, Jr., “Modern interests in Mughal gardens: Garden conservation in urbanizing regions,” in Santosh Ghosh (ed.), Architectural and Urban Conservation (Calcutta: Centre for Build Environment, 1996), pp.

-James L. Westcoat, Jr., “Landscape heritage conservation in Agra: An historical-geographic perspective” and “Landscape heritage conservation timeline for Agra,” In Taj Mahal Heritage Conservation Plan, Amita Sinha, et al. (eds.), Lucknow and Urbana: University of Illinois and Uttar Radesh Tourism Department, 2000.

-G. Stiny and W. J. Mitchell, “The grammar of paradise: On the generation of Mughal gardens,” Environmental Planning B 17 (1980) 209-26.

 

Weeks 14-15  Student Presentations

Citation
Gansell, Amy Rebecca. "Indus River Region and South Asian Gardens." Syllabus, Pratt Institute, New York, NY, 2013.

Authorities
Collections
Copyright
Amy Gansell
Language
English
Keywords
gardens