ADRC: Disaster Management in Nepal: A Review
Rugged and fragile geophysical structure, very high peaks, high angle of slopes, complex geology, variable climatic conditions, active tectonic processes, unplanned settlement, increasing population, weak economic condition and low literacy rate have made Nepal vulnerable to various types of natural disasters. Apart from these, the lack of coordination among agencies related to disaster management, no clear-cut job description of those agencies, resource constraint, the lack of technical manpower, absence of modern technology, the lack of public awareness, very remote, rural and difficult geo-physical situation of the country, absence of modern technology and so on are other factors that have been found as the major obstacles to cope with the natural disasters in Nepal.

In view of the above situation, formulation of a Disaster Management Regulation, amendment in the existing Act is needed to define the job and responsibilities of the agencies related to disaster management. Well trained technical manpower, advanced technology and sufficient means and resources are also needed to reduce the disaster. Moreover, disaster management course has to be included in the school curriculum. Various types of programs are to be launched in order to raise the public awareness. For an effective early warning system, it is needed to develop a scientific detection system to monitor changes in the physical environment. The system of hazard mapping, vulnerability assessment, risk analysis has to be developed as all these sectors are still at primitive stage in Nepal. For all this, political commitment and effective policy formulation and their implementation are very necessary.

Despite the above problems and limitations, Nepal is gradually picking up the momentum towards improving the disaster management situation. Moreover, policy makers have shown interest to look into the problems of disaster management from the point of view of economic development which is gaining speed in the country. This interest of the policy makers itself might prove to be conducive to develop a scientific and modern system of disaster management in the country. Being a developing country, Nepal needs assistance and support of all international communities and friendly nations.

Above all, the concept of International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) has been instrumental in transferring the emphasis from relief and rescue to preparedness and prevention. Various agencies of His Majesty's Government of Nepal are involved in disaster prevention and mitigation works in close cooperation with various international agencies such as: Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC), Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), International Red Cross Society (IRCS), United States Agency for International Development Mission to Nepal (USAIDMN), United Mission to Nepal (UMN), Cooperation for American Relief Everywhere (CARE), World Food Program (WFP), Save the Children Fund (SCF), Technical Cooperation of the Federal Republic of Germany (GTZ), Lutheran World Service (LWS) etc.. Besides, professional and non-governmental organizations of Nepal are also providing highly valuable support at the time of disasters.
Poudyal Chhetri, Meen B. Disaster Management in Nepal: A Review. 1998.