"In 2000, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) launched a Regional Technical Assistance (RETA 5860) entitled Institutional Strengthening and Collection of Environment Statistics in Selected Developing Member Countries (DMCs), covering five Central Asian countries namely Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The primary objective of RETA 5860 was to strengthen the system of collection of environment statistics. Among others, the RETA assisted these countries to prepare a Framework for Development of Environment Statistics (FDES) and to publish a Compendium of Environment Statistics (CES). The present paper makes use of the material contained in each country’s FDES and CES. Other sources have been used as well, including information obtained during the various workshops and training programs and additional research produced by Asian Development Bank (ADB), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), and other international institutions. The paper is intended to serve several purposes. First, it provides an up-to-date assessment of environmental conditions relating to air and water. Second, major flaws and gaps in the existing national statistical systems are identified and discussed and some tentative priorities for improvement are suggested. Some of the evidence presented in the paper is compelling. Hopefully, these results will serve as a catalyst for national statisticians and environment officials to continue their efforts to improve environment statistics in the region.