Church at Bobastro
Ronda, Spain
Between 879 and 918, 'Umar ibn Hafsun led a revolt against the caliphal government at Cordoba from his fortified outpost at Bobastro built on the Mesas de Villaverde in the Sierra de la Pizarra mountain range near Ronda. By 899, this Muwallad leader had converted from Islam to Christianity. Shortly after, some time in the early tenth century, he commissioned a church at the site next to his fortress. Hewn directly from one great piece of rock, this Mozarabic creation features a basilica plan and is organized into three naves divided by arched structures. Today these archaeological remains are part of Ardales National Park.


Goodwin, Godfrey. 1990. Islamic Spain. London: Penguin Group, 100.

Makki, Mahmoud. 1992. The Political History of al-Andalus (92/711-897/1492). In The Legacy of Muslim Spain. Edited by Jayyusi, Salma Khadra. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 31-34.
Ronda, Spain
Circa 899-918
Style Periods
Variant Names
Mozarabic Cave Church in Bobastro
Building Usages