Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey, was the capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires. The Bosphorus straits divides the city into a part that sits on the European continent, and a larger part on the continent of Asia. The militarily and economically strategic position of the city, on the western portion of the Silk Road, and on the shipping route between the Aegean and Black Seas, has kept it cosmopolitan and prosperous since its foundation 660 BCE, when it was called Byzantium. In 330 it became Constantinople, the capital of the Roman Empire, named for Emperor Constantine the Great. The Ottomans conquered the city in 1453/857 AH and renamed the city Istanbul. It served as their capital until Ankara became the capital of the modern nation of Turkey.
Akdag, Suzan Girginkaya and Seda H. Bostanci. "The Impacts of Prestige Projects on The Skyline of Istanbul." ArchNet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 7, issue 2 (2013): 269-281.
The concept of prestige projects for cities is related to governments’ politics and visions. Under the effects of globalization, central and local authorities have constructed competitive cities. But these cities also have important historical qualities hence these processes have to be made by a holistic planning vision and conservation strategy. For instance, if a city waterfront skyline has a strong image; new constructions should be designed in harmony with the local topography and urban pattern. This paper is based on mathematical and computer based approaches for evaluating aesthetic qualities of city skylines. Therefore a case study on high rise buildings in the main prestige CBD of Istanbul is done. GIS models of Maslak-Zincirlikuyu axis is made and its past, present and future skylines are extracted by database querying and visual analysis. The skylines derived are finally measured by entropy analyses based on formal aesthetic characteristics.