Traces of a garden with a pavilion in central position were discovered in an Umayyad palace complex on the outskirts of Rusafa, Syria. On three of the four sides, paths with steps leading up to the pavilion were discovered, and the archaeologists speculated that there was formerly a fourth path that had since been obliterated. This is the earliest known Islamic example of a pavilion occupying the intersecting point of the axes in a quadripartite space.
Source: Archaeological Analysis, 1957–1997
-Antonio Almagro, D. Fairchild Ruggles
Rusafa (Open in Zotero)
Grabung im ummayadischen Rusafah (Open in Zotero)
Originally published at: Almagro, Antonio, and D. Fairchild Ruggles. “Al-Rusafa.” Middle East Garden Traditions. Dumbarton Oaks, November 18, 2014. https://www.doaks.org/resources/middle-east-garden-traditions/catalogue#b_start=0&c6=Early+Islamic+Gardens+of+Greater+Syria. Archived at: https://perma.cc/7ZVW-NFSZ