The Congregational Mosque of Ardistan is an early Islamic building with many accretions over its long history of use. The earliest dated inscription on the building is from the 12th/6th c. AH, but evidence of an earlier mosque remains, suggesting that its original foundation could date to the 10th-11th/4th-5th c. AH or earlier.
The mosque stands on a site once occupied by a Sasanian structure, as evidenced by remains discovered in archaeological excavations.1 The early mosque was likely a hypostyle type, having a central courtyard surrounded by arcades. Remains of some of these arcades in the current mosque show that they were covered with barrel vaults. As it stands today, the mosque occupies an irregular space centered on a rectangular courtyard with four iwans, incorporating pieces of the earlier hypostyle structure. The iwans on the southwest (qibla) and northeast sides of the courtyard are larger, rising to a greater height and being wider as well. Behind the southwest iwan is a square chamber surmounted by a dome resting on an octagonal transition zone formed by eight engaged arches. Between the iwans are vaulted bays of irregular size and shape on two stories. Behind the vaulted bays in the southern quadrant of the mosque, a long corridor leads from two entrances onto the vaulted bays on the southeastern side of the courtyard.
The exterior of the mosque is quite irregular while the facades of the courtyard are harmonious, with the iwans aligned and roughly the same size, not unlike the situation in the Great Mosque of Isfahan
, which also evolved over centuries and went through a major renovation during the Seljuk period. Currently, the mosque has several entrances.
The earliest additions to the mosque that transformed its plan from the original hypostyle type were likely the southwest iwan and dome chamber behind it (dated by inscriptions to 1158/553 AH and 1160/555 AH respectively). These were inserted into the existing hypostyle prayer hall on the southwestern side of the courtyard. Scholars debate the dates of the remaining three iwans, some believing that they were constructed in the twelfth/sixth century and others arguing for a later date, as an inscription in the northeast iwan dates to 1539/946 AH.
The earliest stucco fragments, found in the western corner of the courtyard, have been dated to the end of the 10th/4th c. AH. The interior of the dome chamber and iwan are extensively covered in plaster. The dome and zone of transition are articulated with simulated brickwork; the iwan vault is uniquely faced with a complex stucco design of interlacing arabesques. The mihrab exemplifies skilled stucco carving, and may represent Mongol restoration.
- Ganjnāmah, 160 (English text).
Ḥājjī-Qāsimī, Kāmbīz, ed. Ganjnāmah-i farhang-i ās̲ār-i miʻmārī-i Islāmī-i Īrān, Volume 7, p. 32-41 (English text: 160-169). 18 vols. Tehran: Dānishgāh-i Shahīd Bihishtī, 1996.
Hillenbrand, R. "Ardestān ii. monuments." In Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 4, pp. 385-387.
O'Kane, Bernard. "Iran and Central Asia." In Studies in Persian Art and Architecture
, 119-139. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 1995.
Pope, Arthur Upham. "Architectural Ornament." In A Survey of Persian Art from Prehistoric Times to the Present. Vol. 3: Architecture, Its Ornament, City Plans, Gardens, edited by Arthur Upham Pope and Phyllis Ackerman, 3rd ed., 1258-1364. Tehran: Soroush Press, 1977.
Schroeder, Eric. "Standing Monuments of the First Period." In Pope and Ackerman, eds., A Survey of Persian Art. Vol. 3, 931-966.
- September 7, 2018 (AKDC staff): edited data (added more specific dates; added alternate names); updated description according to information in Ganjnamah, Hillenbrand; added photos.