Garden of Hasan Abdal (Wah Garde) (MEGT)
Hasan Abdal, Pakistan
In 1581, when Akbar laid the foundation of Attock Fort, he appointed Raja Man Singh to remain at the fort to protect the northwest frontier. At this time, Raja Man Singh founded the garden of Hasan Abdal, which was comprised of two terraces. On the upper terrace he built a large tank, with a water channel leading to lower terrace and a baradari.
Jahangir changed the whole character of the landscape. He provided funds twice for the garden’s expansion: the first time on 17 Ramaḍān 1018, he sent four thousand rupees from Lahore. The second time, in Shawwāl 1018, he sent five thousand rupees. These funds paid for a number of additions, including a large bathhouse south of the baradari, a central canal, and fountains. He added a hammām and improved the tank and water system. His interest in the garden may be judged from the fact that the baradari he commissioned was decorated with frescoes. In 1607, he described his stay there:
On Wednesday the 12th the camp was at Baba Hasan Abdal. Two miles (one kos) east of this station there was a waterfall over which the stream rushes with great force. There is no fall like it on the way to Kabul. On the way to Kashmir there are two or three like it. In the middle of the basin, in which is the source of stream, Raja Man Singh erected a small building. This pond is full of fish of quarter yard in length. I stayed at this attractive place for three days and enjoyed wine and fish with those whose were intimate. I had never used the bhanwar jal (a famous Indian net). I cast this net by my hands and caught twelve fish, put pearls in their noses and let them loose in the water. (Tūzuk-i-Jahāngīrī, 1:99–100)
Sometime around 1645, Ustad Ahmad Mimar was summoned by the governor of Punjab to make additions and alterations to the existing layout. He seems to have designed and built two baradaris and raised the level of the terrace and the tank. At the same time, the fountain channel was tessellated and a zanana (ladies’) garden was added. Aurangzeb stayed there for almost a year and a half, from 26 June 1674 to 23 December 1675, during which the garden served as the capital for the Mughal empire. He added a farudgah (resthouse) on the east side. Both court historians and European travelers praised its beauty; Salih Kanbo called it Bāgh-i gulistān-i Iram (the rose garden of Iram).
Source: Court Chronicle, 17th century

-Abdul Rehman, Munazzah Akhtar


The Tūzuk-i-Jahāngīrī: or, Memoirs of Jāhāngīr (Open in Zotero)

Originally published at: Rehman, Abdul, and Munazzah Akhtar. “Garden of Hasan Abdal (Wah Garde).” Middle East Garden Traditions. Dumbarton Oaks, November 18, 2014. Archived at:

Hasan Abdal, Pakistan
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Dates of attested life: 16th century- 17th century
Date of entry of information: April 2007
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Garden of Hasan Abdal (Wah Garde)
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